First Aid | اِبتدائی طبّی اِمداد

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First Aid


First aid saves lives so it is important that everyone understands the basics. 

Accidents can happen to anyone.  Luckily, most accidents are minor requiring home care while some can be serious.  Having a basic first aid kit handy and knowing how to perform simple procedures can help to keep everyone around safer. 

When it comes to a medical emergency, always call rescue services (call 1122) or bring the patient to the nearest hospital or clinic.  If a person is alone with someone experiencing an emergency, do what you can to clear their airway or stop heavy bleeding while calling ambulance or rescue services or someone from the family to help.   

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It is extremely important that people experiencing an emergency get help from medical professionals as soon as possible. 

First aid is meant to minimize the severe effects of the emergency while waiting for help to arrive.

Common types of medical emergencies:

 

Heart Attack  (CPR)

Excessive bleeding

Drowning (CPR)

Allergy or Anaphylaxis

Burns

Drug overdose

Choking

Shock, Stroke

 

Heart attack is perhaps the most common type of medical emergency.  Proper first aid can save lives of large number of patients who suffer with heart attack.

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In cardiac arrest or heart attack incidences, if the patient is not breathing or unresponsive, early CPR can double or even triple the chance of survival.

First Aid for Heart Attack Patients:

  • Help the person to sit down, loosen any tight clothing, rest and keep calm
  • Ask the person if he takes any chest pain medication for e.g. nitroglycerine for already heart patient, and help him to take it
  • Call rescue services or bring the patient to hospital, if condition does not improve in 3 minutes after taking nitroglycerine
  • If patient is unconscious or not breathing, perform CPR and call for rescue services

 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)

CPR is used when the heartbeat or breathing is stopped, such as with heart attack or near drowning incident.  Getting someone to breathe again or restarting the heartbeat helps to give time while waiting for rescue services.  It is very important that CPR is performed right because doing it wrong will not save a life.  At least one person in a family should know how to perform CPR.  

It is important to note that infant CPR is a lot different than CPR on an adult.  For people who are around babies and children, learning this form of CPR is very important.

Burns can be life-threatening when they are severe enough so it is important to know what to do.  Never apply ice, butter or anything else to a burn. 

Depending on the severity, burns can be of three main types:

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First degree burns – heal in 3 – 6 days

  • Usually these burns are red and painful
  • Keep the affected area under the cold water for 5 minutes
  • Apply some antibiotic cream and cover the skin with dry clean bandage
  • If the burn covers a large area of the body, it is safer to see a doctor.

Second degree burns – heal in 2 – 3 weeks

  • These burns can be identified by the presence of blisters and severe pain
  • Common treatment includes cooling the burn under cold water for 15 minutes, taking pain relievers and loosely covering the area with sterile gauze
  • Apply antibiotic cream or ointment
  • If the burn area is large, it should be checked by a doctor

Third degree burns – require long time to heal

  • These burns require emergency medical treatment. Bring the patient to the hospital immediately
  • Usually, the skins looks white to black and the victim experience slight or no pain because nerves are also damaged
  • Make sure the person is breathing and has a normal heart rate.  Otherwise, perform CPR if necessary
  • Use a moist, sterile bandage to cover the burned area and elevate the victim’s burned area above the heart, if possible
  • Never remove any clothing or use ice or water

Choking can become very serious very fast because it blocks the airway, making it impossible to breathe.  It is important to clear the airway by removing what they are choking on. 

  • As a first aid, it is recommended to give 5 blows at the back between the two shoulders

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  • Also give, Heimlich maneuver (abdominal pressure): by standing behind the patient and wrap your arm around patient abdomen and give 5 quick presses in the abdomen bending the patient at the front
  • If required, alternate between step 1 and 2, until the object choking the airway is removed
  • When it comes to bleeding, the biggest issue is getting it to stop and knowing where it is coming from

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  • If the blood is coming from a blood vessel (vein or artery), it is important to apply constant pressure on site of bleeding until the bleeding completely stops.  Use anything clean to apply pressure
  • Usually, bleeding from an artery requires hard pressure for longer time to stop the bleeding
  • If the injury site is bigger or patient has lost a lot blood, it is safer to bring the patient to the nearby hospital

If you know that someone has experienced a drug overdose, check for breathing and a pulse. 

If one of these is absent, immediately start CPR while waiting on help to arrive. 

If someone is conscious and vomiting due to an overdose, immediately turn them onto their side so that they do not choke on their vomit.  Do not give them anything to eat or drink. Bring the patient promptly to the nearest hospital

Most allergic reactions are not life-threatening, but if you know someone who experiences ambulance-1769889_640anaphylaxis due to an allergy, it is important to get them medical attention immediately.  While waiting, administer an Epinephrine, if the person has one. 

Epinephrine is a medication that can help to stop them from going into anaphylaxis, a life-threatening form of shock in which the throat closes up, preventing breathing.

There are many different types of shock.  When a person is going into shock, the blood is not getting to the brain so they are not getting enough oxygen.  This is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment, but while waiting for help to arrive, there are things you can do to help the victim, including:

  • Lie the victim on their back
  • Raise feet, if possible
  • Keep them warm
  • If the victim starts bleeding or vomiting from the mouth, prevent choking by turning them on their side
  • Never give them any medications, food or drinks

A first aid kit can be helpful in several different types of emergencies, as well as with minor injuries.  It is important to have one in your home.  The minimum supplies needed in a kit include

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  • Sterile gauze in various sizes
  • Band-aids, adhesive tape
  • Sterile cotton swabs
  • Scissors
  • Surgical gloves
  • Thermometer
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Antibiotic ointment
  • Sterile saline
  • Antihistamines medicines
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